- Vol. 9 No. 1, 2020
- Vol. 8 No. 4, 2019
- Vol. 8 No. 3, 2019
- Vol. 8 No. 2, 2019
- Vol. 8 No. 1, 2019
- Vol. 7 No. 3, 2018
- Vol. 7 No. 2, 2018
- Vol. 7 No. 1, 2018
- Vol. 6 No. 2, 2017
- Vol. 6 No. 1, 2017
- Vol. 5 No. 2, 2016
- Vol. 5 No. 1, 2016
- Vol. 4 No. 2, 2015
- Vol. 3 No. 2, 2014
- Vol. 3 No. 1, 2014
- Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013
- Vol. 2 No. 1, 2013
- Vol. 1 No. 1, 2012
Vol. 9 No. 1 , 2020
Table of Contents
“The Effects of Self-Construal on Brand-Page Connection: A Study of Young American and Chinese Fans”
Authors: Alexander Muk, Christina Chung [pp. 1-12]
This study examines what factors motivate consumers to become brand-page fans and how differences in self-construal patterns influence brand-connection factors. Based on the self-concept theory, two levels of functional brand-connection factors are identified: individual-level connection (individual-identity) and group-level connection (social identity). Brand relationship drivers are used as an emotional connection construct. An online survey is conducted to understand the motivations and antecedents of consumers’ intentions to join brand pages and the cultural differences in brand consumption behaviors between young American and Chinese consumers. The results show that Americans’ brand-page connections are predominantly influenced by independent self-construal whereas interdependent self-construal has a stronger effect on Chinese’s brand-page connections. These results provide key implications for international marketers using social networking sites as marketing tools.
“Impact of Operations Management Practices On Firm Performance: An Empirical Analysis at Vietnam’s Mechanical Firms”
Authors: Anh Minh Dao, Bruce Walker, Cindy Strickler [pp. 13-21]
This paper examines the impact of Operations Management (OM) practices on firm performance in Vietnam’s mechanical enterprises, since OM practices, such as Just-in-time (JIT), quality management (QM) and infrastructures practices are seen as procedures or solutions to improve the efficiency of manufacturing firms. All questions were answered using a 5-point Likert scale. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. The statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and regression analysis for hypothesis testing. The findings present, firstly, the extent of operations management practices implemented in Vietnam’s mechanical enterprises is fairly high; secondly, the impact of these practices on firm performance was positive. Equipment layout and supplier quality management are positively and significantly related to financial performance; whereas equipment layout, JIT delivery by supplier, Kanban, cleanliness and organization, and information and feedback are positively and significantly related to non-financial performance. This result suggests to mechanical enterprises in Vietnam that they should employ these practices to maintain and improve performance as well as to gain competitive advantages.
“The Insights on Marketing Initiatives Impacting the Bullwhip Effect: Sectoral Study”
Authors: Sachin Gupta, Anurag Saxena [pp. 22-30]
The particular phenomenon of disruption in supply chain in which production is more variable than demand is considered as bullwhip effect. The Bullwhip Effect is immensely studied by the researchers around the world but still it is considered as the unsolved problem. The present study analyzes the impact of different promotion initiatives taken by the firms' belonging to different sectors on the bullwhip effect. The empirical data on marketing expenditure is analyzed from ten major and independent Indian sectors to analyze how marketing initiatives of different sectors are causing the disruption in the supply chain. It has been found that the marketing strategies vary according to the different sectors and the expense incurring in marketing is causing the bullwhip effect. The results are contradicting with the existing theory and it has been analyzed that total marketing expenditure is found to be insignificant in explaining the variability existing in production hence the need of further analysis of marketing expenditure into direct and indirect expenditures arises. The indirect as well as direct marketing expenditures are found to have an impact on the variability in production causing disruption of supply chain and this impact varies from sector to sector. The study attempts to statistically measure this impact.
“A Qualitative Inquiry on the Perspective of Tax Practitioners on Corporate Social Responsibility and Taxation”
Author: Gavin R. Goldstein, Geoffrey R. Goldstein [pp. 31-53]
Prior research indicated that Corporate Social Responsibility (“CSR”) and taxation is an issue of sustainability, ethics, morality, corporate culture, and corporate governance. The tax decisions of an organization affect a wide range of stakeholders including the government, employees, and the community. Despite this, the link between corporate taxation and CSR is poorly understood. We conducted a qualitative inquiry by interviewing tax practitioners for their perspectives, experiences, and understanding of taxation and CSR. We sampled tax practitioners from the target population of tax practitioners for corporate clients. We gained valuable insight on tax practitioners’ perspective on the link between CSR and taxation, including their inability to define CSR. This contributed to their failure to discuss CSR with clients.
“Reviving Organizational Culture with the Concept of Tradition: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective”
Authors: Paul D. Nugent, Jennifer Flynn [pp. 54-58]
Organizational culture was the darling of Organization Theory and management fads in the 1980s and 1990s. To managers it promised a way to motivate and to increase organizational effectiveness with little investment. And to scholars it represented a more human and anthropological way of framing organizations as bearers of shared meanings, rituals, symbols, ceremonies, and stories. However, over time, top-down corporate approaches to culture change were not reaping the promised benefits and its usefulness to scholars began to wane as they exhausted its theoretical implications and discovered a dark side to culture change programs. We believe that this weakening of culture’s importance to organizations and to scholars is partly due to its neglect of the role of tradition in organizations. Tradition represents an informal means by which not only ceremonies, rituals, symbols, etc. may be passed on over time, but more importantly many traditions embody how the work itself is to be performed and evaluated. Therefore, this paper will explore formative works on the concept of tradition and also draw upon social psychological perspectives (namely Symbolic Interactionism (SI)) to theorize why the concept of tradition needs to be added to, and perhaps revive, the literature on organizational culture. This paper explores this theme and its implications for theory, management, and practice.
Vol. 8 No. 4 , 2019
Table of Contents
“European and Asia Pacific ADRs: A Long-Term Performance Assessment”
Authors: Mark Schaub, K. Michael Casey [pp. 1-13]
The paper reports on empirical work recently conducted about the determinants of human resource (HR) practices based on High performance work system (HPWS) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. From a structural equation modeling approach; this paper analyzes data collected from 159 samples of line managers who were working in limited and joint stock companies. The paper explores a system of HR practices implemented in Vietnam, including job description and appraisal, extensive training, employee security, internal mobility, selective staffing and incentive reward. Research findings suggest that there is considerable diversity amongst SMEs in relation to their use of HR practices. Moreover, the research implications, and suggestions for future research directions are also discussed in this paper.
“Fair Value Accounting and Corporate Capital Structure: Evidence from SFAS 157 Disclosures”
Authors: Amy E. Ji [pp. 14-22]
This paper investigates whether the extent of assets and liabilities measured at fair values is positively related to a firm’s level of debt. I predict a positive association because fair value estimates produce less reliable accounting numbers and, thus, increase agency costs between managers and shareholders. Consistent with the hypothesis, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the extent of fair value estimates and a firm’s level of debt. I further find that the impact of fair value estimates on a firm’s level of debt is mitigated by high-quality auditors. Collectively, the results suggest that fair value accounting has impact on corporate economic decisions beyond affecting financial reporting quality.
“The Effect of SFAS 140 Disclosures on the Launch Spreads of Credit Card Receivables Asset-Backed Securities”
Authors: Arthur L. Wharton, III, Hari Sharma [pp. 23-31]
The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the launch spreads of newly issued credit card receivables Asset Backed Securities (ABS) after the adoption of new accounting disclosure regulations. We focus specifically on examining the impact of Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (SFAS) 140 disclosures on credit card receivables ABS to assess whether the spreads were lower after SFAS 140 adoption. We regressed ABS spread before and after implementation of SFAS 140 against disclosure variable projected loss and control variables. The results suggest that the SFAS 140 disclosure regime provides useful information for investors to evaluate the risks associated with credit card ABS as reflected by lower spreads after adoption.
“Hedonic housing prices and the marginal willingness to pay for pollution abatement in Ontario, Canada”
Author: Arian K. Moghadam, Burc Kayahan [pp. 32-41]
The aim of this study is to utilize a revealed-preferences approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay for pollution abatement based on the toxicity levels of pollutants listed under the National Pollutant Release Inventory in Ontario, Canada. The results from the spatial hedonic price model applied to the housing market reveal that the estimated price and income elasticities, and the marginal willingness to pay for pollution abatement accord well with expectation. Overall, the results indicate that in 2006 the cumulative marginal willingness to pay to abate a tonne of pollution in Ontario was $8.4 million for pollutants that are human carcinogen, $1.3 million for pollutants that are probable/possible human carcinogen, $2.1 million for pollutants that are not classifiable as human carcinogen, and $14 thousand for pollutants in none of these groups. While these results alone are not sufficient to determine the optimal levels of pollution abatement, they can be used in tandem with the estimation of firms marginal abatement costs to determine the optimal levels of pollution abatement in Ontario.
“Effectiveness of Manpower Planning Practices in Commercial Banks of Bangladesh”
Authors: Nazrul Islam, Nafizur Rahman, Nowshin Nower, Zeba Samiha, Rashik Hassan, Mostafa Asef Rafi
Banking sector is the most prominent and stable sector compared to other industrial sectors of Bangladesh. At present there are fifty-nine scheduled banks including forty-eight private commercial banks in Bangladesh operating under the regulation of the central bank of Bangladesh - Bangladesh Bank. There is a paramount importance of manpower planning of these commercial banks for achieving competitive advantage, banks’ strategic objectives and keeping this sector stable in the economy. The basic function of manpower planning in a bank is to identify the future needs and availability of human resources along with the skills required to perform bank’s activities to achieve their strategic goals. Hence, this paper aims at evaluating the effectiveness of manpower planning practices of the private banks in Bangladesh. This study is based on a survey of 206 employees of different levels of commercial banks of Bangladesh. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the present manpower planning practices of the commercial banking sector of Bangladesh. Inferential statistics like factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to identify the relationships between the manpower planning practices and the factors that are concerned with effectiveness of manpower planning practices of the commercial banks in Bangladesh. Results show that Delphi technique and skill inventory practices and key position auditing techniques are the significant manpower planning techniques of the commercial banks in Bangladesh. Factors like timely planning and audit, evenly distribution of work, addressing job turnover, adequate workload, and comprehensive recruitment plan are also significantly related to the overall effectiveness of manpower planning practices of the commercial banks in Bangladesh. This study suggests that the policymakers of the banks of Bangladesh should give importance on timely planning and audit, evenly distribution of work, addressing job turnover, providing adequate workload, and comprehensive recruitment plan in order to bring effectiveness of manpower planning practices in the commercial banks of Bangladesh. The policymakers also should adopt Delphi technique and skill inventory practices, and key position auditing techniques in order to make manpower planning more effective in the banks.
Vol. 8 No. 3 , 2019 (Special Issue)
Table of Contents
“Sustainability of Organic Cosmetics: The Mediating Role of Emotional Benefits between Cause Campaign and Trust”
Authors: Suhan Mendon, Smitha Nayak, Sujaya Hemachandra, Sara Kunnath, Daniel Frank [pp. 1-13]
This study focused on how and whether cause campaign affects emotional benefits as well as trust of consumers in the sustainability of organic cosmetics. It examines the relevance of emotional benefits as a mediating variable between cause campaign and trust in the sustainability of organic cosmetics. While this study found evidence of cause span effect on emotional benefits and trust, there was also evidence of the strong mediation effect of cause purview on trust. The findings also indicate that the model is valid and has good fit. The relative predictive relevance of the model has high impact on the cause span and trust. This research endeavour is significant because it has several implications for trust, with regard to sustainability of organic cosmetics which is conceptualized and operationalized at an individual level
“Crafting Sustainable Indian Educational Institutions Through Solar Photovoltaic: A Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model”
Authors: Sara Kunnath, Smitha Nayak, Suhan Mendon [pp. 14-22]
The main context and aim of the research paper is to report the findings of the empirical study of the effect of government policy in implementing Grid connected Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic in Educational Institutions in the state of Karnataka, India. The Government policy has initiated the change towards sustainable development in the state of Karnataka. This research paper has used the second generation software Smart PLS3 to measure the reliability and validity. PLS-SEM highlights the effect of exogenous latent variables of Government policy, Reason for Motivation, Advantages, Opportunities and Challenges of implementing Roof top Solar Photovoltaic, as a renewable energy option for the Educational Institution with the three dimensions of sustainability, such as social, economic and environmental benefits, as the endogenous latent variables. Hypotheses are tested through bootstrapping. Effect of each construct is measured by Blindfolding method. Finally, the Importance performance matrix analysis (IPMA) has been done in order to measure the impact of constructs and the indicators on the model. Adoption of renewable energy solution, has been found to cultivate a learning environment that mirror real-world problems and encourage curriculum development in the field. It develops positive attitude of the students towards renewable energy and sustainability thereby encouraging environment conservation leading to environmentally conscious designs and technology to improve sustainability and promote conservation of natural resources.
“Antecedents of Business Success among Women Owned MSMEs: Perspectives from an Emerging Economy”
Authors: Nayak Smitha, Suhan Mendon [pp. 23-30]
The purpose of this research endeavor is to explore the antecedents of business success in the Indian perspective, with specific reference to women owned Micro, Small and Medium enterprises (MSMEs). The Resource Based View (RBV) servers as the theoretical perspective of this research endeavor. The research philosophy adopted in the study is positivism. A multistage mixed sample design is embraced and cross-sectional data is captured form 149 women entrepreneurs in the MSME sector through a structured pre-tested questionnaire. This study has adopted the PLS-SEM approach to test the hypotheses relating to the relationship among the exogenous constructs such as marketing capability, entrepreneurial competency, knowledge sharing, access to financial resources, and technology usage with the endogenous construct i.e. business success. This research has found that business success has a significant positive association with entrepreneurial competency, technology usage, access to financial resources and knowledge sharing. However, this study fails to gather empirical evidence to support the association between marketing capability and business success. The interpretations presented in this papers lays a foundation to policy makers in designing skill enhancement, support initiatives and effective policy framework that will boost the competitiveness of women owned MSMEs in India. This empirical research is original as antecedents of business success is explored in the theoretical backdrop of the Resource Based Theory and within the scope of women owned MSME enterprises.
“Impact of Digitization on Smart Living: A Case of Dubai”
Author: Deepak Kalra [pp. 31-36]
Digitization has changed traditional urban living into Smart Living. The objective of this study is to find impact of Digitization, E-governance and Selfdriven economy on smart living in Dubai. This empirical investigation is done through a survey of top and middle level management personnel of Dubai government having clear understanding of the pattern and growth of smart living in Dubai. The primary data was collected from 337 personnel through purposive and quota sampling from 15 different government departments and analyzed through correlation and structural equation modeling. The finding highlights the point that Digitization of infrastructure has a significant contribution in transforming urbanization into smart living. The results also highlighted presence of significant relationship between self-driven economy and smart living in smart cities, as the smart cities manage and operationalize their resources in a way that they are self-dependent and sustainable in all aspects.
“Impact of Health Concern on Food Habits: Examining the Mediational Role of Lifestyle”
Authors: Rajasekharan Pillai K*, Alisha M. Aranha, David G. Karkada, Ashish V. Prakash [pp. 37-43]
The present study endeavored to investigate how perceived health consciousness influences the food preferences of people. This was an attempt to examine the mediational role of healthy lifestyle practices between health concern and healthy food choices. The study followed a cross-sectional quantitative design. The respondents were identified using convenient sampling method after seeking their voluntary participation in the survey through shop intercept survey. Linear regression, using process mediation, was used to verify the theoretical propositions empirically. The study identified that consumers value healthy food choices, and there is a changing trend in their food habits. The current study offers empirical support to the theoretical percept that the production and consumption of healthy foods have increased, owing to the awareness of their functional benefits. This is a pioneer effort to examine the mediational role of healthy lifestyles between health concerns and healthy food habits
Vol. 8 No. 2 , 2019 (Special Issue)
Culture and attitudes towards business ethics: Empirical evidence from an emerging economy [pp. 9]
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between national culture and business ethics in Nigeria. Several studies have been conducted on culture and business ethics. However, very few of these have been conducted on the influence of culture on managers’ attitudes towards business ethics in Nigeria. Data for this research was collected from 414 managers in Nigeria. Two instruments were used to measure the influence of culture and attitudes towards business ethics of managers. Results show that culture has a significant influence on managers’ attitudes towards business ethics. The results can help firms in developing effective culturally based ethical codes of conduct as well as to design and manage targeted ethical policies and programs that will actively motivate, stimulate, support, encourage, and promote an outstanding ethical organizations in Nigeria. As a ground-breaking study on this topic in Nigeria, the findings provide managers and scholars with an understanding of how cultural dimensions can influence managers’ attitudes towards business ethics. The insights gained from this study will contribute to the future research development on culture and attitude of managers toward business ethics in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan Africa countries.
Financing Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Domestic
Revenue Mobilization [pp. 29]
Financing development in sub-Saharan Africa requires the implementation of policies to boost domestic revenue mobilization. This paper tackles the issue of domestic revenue mobilization from the lens of revenue potential. The empirical analysis uses a panel data of 30 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to estimate tax potential using the stochastic frontier analysis. The results show that the level of revenue collection in most countries in SSA is about 30 percent below their potential and the level needed to fully finance their development expenditures. The results show that corruption, complexity of the tax system, political instability, limited enforcement of law and order, limited democratic accountability are significant in explaining inefficiency in revenue collection. The paper concludes that crucial steps to improve revenue mobilization needs to include streamlining tax exemptions, expanding the coverage of income tax, strengthening value added tax systems, developing new sources of revenues such as property taxes, and strengthening revenue administration.
Spill-Over Effects of Inward Foreign Direct Investment by Economic Regions: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam [pp. 51]
Drawing on a large panel of data containing almost all firms in Vietnam during the period 2001-2010, this paper examines the inward foreign direct investment (FDI) spill-over effects on firm productivity through both horizontal and vertical backward and vertical forward linkages with FDI firms in different economic regions. Using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator that takes into account firm-specific fixed effects, endogeneity, and simultaneity, we find that inward FDI presents significant spill-over effects on the productivity of firms geographically located in more advanced regions characterized by high levels of production output, capital-labour ratio, FDI intensity, and availability of abundant educated workers.
Reporting Corporate Social Responsibility in corporate Africa: An Exploratory Study [pp. 72]
The concept of corporate social responsibility has permeated all corners of the world; including the continent of Africa and its countries. This is simply because individual citizens, corporate entities, stakeholders, governments and international organisations have understood the serious consequences on our world and the environment of the act of persistent irresponsibility on the part of citizens; irrespective of whether these are individual or corporate. This study seeks to explore how and what issues relating to corporate social responsibility are reported by corporate entities which operate in African countries. Using data from 115 companies in twelve African countries – Nigeria, Ghana, Egypt, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa the paper answers pertinent questions such as: what do corporate entities operating in African countries disclose in their CSR reports? Are African companies aware that they have some responsibilities to non-shareholding citizens and the environment? Are corporate entities operating in African countries providing integrated reports or just the traditional annual reports? Are these non-mandatory reports externally validated or verified? Are these entities demonstrably meeting their stakeholders’ information requirements through the use of dedicated corporate websites which is what corporate entities in the most developed economies of the world do? Are these reports embedded in the traditional annual reports or provided in stand-alone reports or CSR issues not reported at all? The study focused its attention on African countries where English is a de jure (official) language simply because of the likely problems of accurately translating into English the information disclosed in other languages by corporate entities in non-English speaking African countries. The study has used data from corporate entities in different geographical locations and business sectors in the continent of Africa and thus contributes to readers’ understanding of what African companies disclose in their CSR reports.
A Celebration of unsung Heroes in Football – A Spotlight on Russia’s Leonid Slutski [pp. 93]
This study explores the exploits of Leonid Slutski - CSKA Moscow manager and Manager of the Russian National Football Team. The study is based on a general review of managerial exploits and football team performance at both the club and country levels. Primarily the study is based on personal observations and a review of the secondary data sources. The study highlights the impact of football managers/ coaches on team performance drawing upon case illustrations from “unsung heroes” which, by definition, include little celebrated managers such as Ronald Koeman (Southampton Football Club UK), Claudio Ranieri/ Nigel Pearson (Leicester Football Club, UK); and Christopher Patrick - aka “Chris” Coleman (former coach of Fulham, Coventry and now the Welsh National Football Team) to support the contention of the “unresolved question” of managerial sacks and team performance. The study is the first to explore managerial resilience from the Baltic context. It also provides a pioneering effort in exploring and celebrating management practices of football managers who are described as “unsung heroes” – with implications drawn from the exploits of Sir Alex Ferguson at Manchester United.
Poor Distribution of Influence and Insufficient Employee Involvement in Higher Education: Particularly in Not-For-Profits as Compared to For-Profits Institutions [pp. 121]
Employee Involvement, Empowerment, Distribution of Influence and Total Influence are intertwined systems structures that impact organizational effectiveness. We analyzed these four measures by online survey of 52 higher education faculty and administrators from institutions in more than 16 countries using the Human Synergistics International Organizational Effectiveness Inventory® (OEI®) survey. Results revealed that total mean scores for the four measures were less desirable than established Constructive Benchmarks. Employee Involvement and Distribution of Influence were also less desirable than the Historical Average, a benchmark derived from 50th percentiles. Total Influence was undesirable for males and private-not-for-profits, but desirable and approached the Constructive Benchmark for females, administrators and for-profits. We recommend (1) increasing Employee Involvement, particularly in not-for-profits; (2) increasing Distribution of Influence, particularly in women and not-for-profits; and (3) increasing Empowerment, particularly in private higher education institutions.
Vol. 8 No. 1 , 2019
Table of Contents
Human Resource Practices Implemented in Vietnamese SMEs: A Second Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis [pp. 1-12]
This paper reports the findings of an empirical study examining the determinants of human resource (HR) practices based on High performance work system (HPWS) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. It uses structural equation modeling to analyze data collecte1d from 159 samples of line managers working in limited and joint stock companies. It specifically focuses on a system of HR practices implemented in Vietnam, including job description and appraisal, extensive training, employee security, internal mobility, selective staffing and incentive reward. Research findings suggest that there is considerable diversity among SMEs in relation to their use of HR practices. Research implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
International Trade and Labor Productivity in the United States: A NAFTA Perspective [pp. 13-21]
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) celebrated its twentieth anniversary in 2014. The objective of NAFTA was to increase the efficiency and fairness of trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This study utilizes industry-level panel data over the period 1987-2016 to evaluate labor productivity in the United States within key manufacturing industries since the United States joined NAFTA. Growth in labor productivity is an important economic driver of rising economic output and improved living standards. Results show bi-directional correlations between trade, exchange rates, and labor productivity, which underscore the impact of NAFTA on the United States’ labor market.
Examine the Effect of Generation in Leadership Process: A Cross-cultural Study in America and China [pp. 22-29]
Today’s workforce is more diverse than ever. One diversity issue that has not been generally recognized is generational difference. Generation was examined as a moderator of the relationship between transformational leadership and its effectiveness in this study. The study also provides a cross-cultural comparison of the perception of leadership effectiveness in America and in China using a principal component analysis (PCA). The Americans are found to have higher levels of transformational leadership effectiveness than did the Chinese. The results report non-significant correlations between generation and transformational leadership effectiveness. This study broadens the still fragmentary knowledge of the conditions under which transformational leadership is likely to have more or less positive effects on employees’ performance.
Determinants of Capital Structure Policy - Analysis of Airline Industry [pp. 30-38]
This study aims to understand the determinants of capital structure policy of airline industry. It examines the relevance of different debt theories in the context of airline industry. Using a sample of 50 airline firms, the average leverage of airline firms was found to be 3.66. Three different measures of leverage were regressed upon variables representing size, cash flow, profitability, growth, investment opportunities, risk, liquidity and efficiency measures. This study documents positive relationship between leverage and profitability as predicted by the tradeoff theory. It also finds some evidence for signaling theory. Profitable firms signal higher cash flow generation capacity of the firm and uses higher leverage. The negative relationship between leverage and growth confirms the prediction of tradeoff theory.
Volatility Spillover Effects between Oil Price Shocks and Stock Markets: Evidence from BRICS and G7 [pp. 39-51]
Employing Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC–GARCH) (Engle, 2002), this paper compares and investigates volatility spillover effects between oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S., U.K., Canada, France, Japan, Germany, and Italy (G7) and Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) using daily data from Jan 1, 1992 through Jan 30, 2015. It reveals the positive spillover effects between oil stock markets in both BRICS and G7. Especially, the recent financial crisis around 2008 impact the dynamic conditional correlations in both G7 and BRICS. Moreover, spillover effects between oil markets and stock markets are significantly impacted by the economic conditions, such as financial crisis, housing bubble, tech bubble, and economic recovery, while oil importing and exporting countries have no significant different spillover effects.
Snapshots of Great Leadership (2nd edition) is Dr. Jon P. Howell’s effort to share his expertise from a successful career researching the topic of leadership. For the 2nd edition, he has added a co-author, Dr. Isaac Wanasika who adds value and a fresh perspective to a long list of chapters dedicated to exploring current and historic leaders within a research-oriented framework. The diverse cast of leaders in Snapshots are likely to include many individuals not known in detail to the average reader making it a valuable text for students of leadership and leadership instructors as well.
Vol. 7 No. 3 , 2018
Table of Contents
The Role of Procedural and Distributive Fairness in R&D Collaborations [pp. 1-12]
This research examines the value of developing procedural and distributive fairness under a variety of favorable and adverse transacting conditions in R&D collaborations. The parties in these collaborations have symmetrical power and make significant investments in joint activities. A survey of approximately 300 R&D collaborations indicates that while procedural and distributive fairness facilitates performance outcomes, these forms of fairness are also able to improve performance under favorable transacting conditions (e.g., knowledge of the transformation process) and mitigate the negative effects of adverse transacting conditions (e.g., asymmetric inputs and transacting hazards). Interestingly, we also find evidence that the development of fairness can undermine performance, particularly when credible commitments of collaboration (e.g., joint transaction-specific investments) are in place. Implications for the development of interorganizational relationships and the management of complex collaborations are also discussed.
Exploring the Dynamics of Women Entrepreneurship:
A Case Study of UAE [pp. 13-24]
This study explores the dynamics of women entrepreneurs in the context of the United Arab Emirates. A review of the entrepreneurial environment and female entrepreneurship in UAE was first carried out through an analysis of extant literature and the exploration of personal characteristics and motivations with data drawn from 178 female entrepreneurs. The results of factor analysis show that self-determination, desire for change, crave for family life balance, occupational f lexibility, work responsibility, career advancement, and independence were the most important attributes for women entrepreneurs. Further, the result shows that majority of female entrepreneurs are less likely to settle down with their family before they decide to become entrepreneurs. In terms of education, majority have at least secondary education and some even post-graduate qualifications. In conclusion, women entrepreneurs should not be treated as a monolithic category: rather, policies and programs to support them should begin with a diagnosis of their personal characteristics and motives aimed at strengthening pull motives that comprise a base for more viable and innovative entrepreneurial activity.
Resilience as a Predictor of Variations in Freshmen Retention [pp. 25-41]
As institutions of higher learning struggle to retain their incoming freshmen beyond the first year; research theorizes that “at risk” students are more vulnerable to depart for financial reasons among other stressors. The study looks at the ability of freshmen students to navigate beyond their first year and their capacity to build resilience through student and faculty engagement. This mixed method study seeks to better understand the relationship between resilience and variations in freshmen retention among students at a private university in Queens, New York. An examination of how resilience impacts retention is explored both quantitatively (stepwise multiple regression analysis) and qualitatively (focus group questionnaire). The research has shown that as levels of student engagement increase, so does student resilience and retention in higher education. The qualitative results are consistent with the literature in support of resilience training. The implication of this research is intended to provide insight to advisors and faculty working with prospective freshmen students towards a better understanding of the impact of resilience on retention.
An Empirical Study: Employee Engagement and Linkage to Organization Performance and Sustainability [pp. 42-56]
Employee engagement is the driving force of the organizations success; organizations that have pitiable employee engagement have experienced extensive employee turnover, low production and efficiency, decrease in consumer loyalty, decline in stakeholder value, and an ultimate detriment to their organizational success. Organizations that do not foster and engage employees end up losing valuable talent to other organizations. The study was conducted to examine the influence of various factors on employee engagement among customer service employees that work in multiple customer service sectors in the United States. For this quantitative research design, a Likert scale survey was used with statistical analysis on a sample of 262 participants from customer service sectors that included: transportation, banking, athletics, childcare, insurance, hospitality, information technology, and administrative assistants from Northern New Jersey and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The factors explored to examine the influence on worker engagement included work environment, relationship management, employee engagement, and career development. The general business problem is that non-engaged employees in the workplace contribute to low performance rates and lack of goal achievements in the workplace. Statistical results revealed no significance with P>.05.
Disruptive Education: Implications for Higher Education in Vietnam [pp. 57-66]
Higher education (HE) is entering a turning point, as there is a prediction that over half of the U.S. universities will fail within fifteen years due to disruptive innovations of technology-enhanced education in general and the massive open online courses (MOOCs) in particular. Will these innovations change how we teach in the future? The purpose of this paper is to examine the MOOC provision in the context of Vietnamese higher education and propose new business models that integrate MOOC platforms into the institutional platform in response to changing demands of the education market. To this end, we apply the theory of disruptive innovation and perform a comparative case study of a data-driven confirmation model at a national scale. We found that MOOCs teaching and learning platforms play a disruptive role to change the process of higher education significantly and that the theory of disruptive innovation is applicable on a national scale. However, the pattern of radical changes does not exactly follow the theory of disruptive innovation. Disruptive education is scalable but under certain necessary and sufficient conditions. The paper proposes consistent higher education policies, and new business models for the traditional universities to cope with future challenges and gain competitive advantages in the global education market.
Vol. 7 No. 2 , 2018
Table of Contents
Role of switching costs and perceived risk in managing customer loyalty in Vietnam e-commerce [pp. 1-14]
This research investigates the effects of switching costs and perceived risk on customer loyalty in Vietnam e-commerce context. The study also examines the mediating roles of switching costs and perceived risk in the relationships between important factors including communication, satisfaction and personalization and customer loyalty. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample of 437 Vietnamese online shoppers. AMOS 22 was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that perceived risk does not directly affect customer loyalty; instead, the effect of perceived risk on customer loyalty is totally mediated by switching costs. Moreover, switching costs and perceived risk significantly mediate the relationship between each of customer satisfaction, communication and personalization on customer loyalty. The findings give an insight into the roles of switching costs and perceived risk in managing customer loyalty as well as demonstrate new perspectives in explaining paths from customer satisfaction, communication and personalization to customer loyalty.
Developing software piracy free organization: A case of an American business school in China [pp. 15-37]
The habituation of legal software use for students on college campuses is important because it helps future professionals exercise the rules of ethical compliance. In this action research study, over a two-year period, we investigated the effects of planned change interventions (a.k.a. organizational development efforts) on legal software use at an American business school in China. We examined correlations among the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology constructs by using the partial least square structural equation modeling technique. After obtaining the evaluative surveys from undergraduate business students (n = 215), the results indicated that the adoption rate of legal software increased from 40% to 71%, and change interventions accelerated the speed of legal software use. While performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence had significant influences on behavioral intention, we found a substantial gender difference in the effect of facilitating condition on the legal software use behavior. Females are less likely to accept legal software that is mandated by the organizational policy, but they are highly influenced by the social influence. We also found out that participants accept legal software differently according to their respective year in the organization. Relatively new students are sensitive to the organizational policy whereas experienced students give more attention to the benefits of using legal software. Based on these findings, we suggest gender sensitive organizational policy and structured institutional efforts to build a software piracy free organization.
Corporate Tax Aggressiveness in the 2007–2008 Financial Crisis [pp. 38-48]
This paper examines the impact of the 2007-2008 financial crisis on corporate tax aggressiveness. I hypothesize that, during the crisis, firms adopt more aggressive tax policies to save cash internally as external capital is harder or more costly to obtain because of the tight financial markets. Consistent with the prediction, my findings show that firms exhibited higher levels of tax aggressiveness in the crisis period than in the non-crisis period. I further find that the impact of the crisis on corporate tax aggressiveness was stronger for firms with lower cash holdings (i.e., firms more susceptible to the credit supply shock). Overall, the results suggest that the credit crisis affects firms’ aggressive tax behaviors via its negative impact on their funding ability.
The Utilization of Scripts in Designing Charity Promotion Strategy:
The Case of Animals [pp. 49-65]
The purpose of this study is to explore the usefulness of scripts in the promotional materials of animal welfare charitable organizations. A content of the printed promotional material used, over a two-year period, by eighty-two animal welfare charitable organizations that is sent to current and potential donors through the mail was analyzed. The paper indicates how scripts can be of value in selecting promotion ingredients. The results can serve as a guide and a thinking stimulant for those who are designing animal welfare promotions. The utilization of scripts as a means of selecting points for animal charity programs appears to have considerable potential.
Together we grow: Communication and social capital in micro-credit for women’s empowerment in Bangladesh [pp. 58-67]
The empowerment of women is a fundamental component of global social economic development. Despite the importance of empowering women, women have long been subjugated around the world. Even though economically Bangladesh is in undeveloped Global South, the country has set a milestone through creation of a model to eradicate poverty by empowering women. In this study, we examined the effect of group dynamics in building social capital and how women could benefit by utilizing this social capital to get micro-credit. In turn, women are enabled to empower themselves and improve their lives. This is a qualitative study and data were collected based on in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results showed that group communication and social capital are important factors for micro-credit. Thus, Bangladeshi micro-credit borrowers get benefit from group bonding to get the loan and become socio-economically empowered. In this respect, this project will extend the existing knowledge of the role of communication in women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.
Book Review: Exactly What To Say: The Magic
Words for Influence and Impact [pp. 68-69]
In every aspect of business today, the landscape of finding an edge is critical. This same edge that empowers individuals in their personal lives can be showcased in their decision making abilities at work. The decisions employers and employees make every day have an impact on various facets of the organization. The same decision choices are applied to businesses and individuals alike. In this book, Exactly What To Say: The Magic Words for Influence and Impact, the author Phil Jones offers up advice and strategy, and emphasizes the power of words.
There are often many scenarios when individuals have either nothing to say or too much to say. In the world of business, this can be overly distracting or can cause confusion and lack of motivation. Jones provides the eloquence of business language for anyone who might find themselves in scenarios of leadership, teaching, or motivation. The science and art of influencing others stem from the ability to communicate well and “manipulate” words that have a profound impact with the audience being addressed. The significance of this book is that it delivers a simple call to action in how messages are delivered.
Vol. 7 No. 1 , 2018
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 6-7]
The papers presented in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) reflect the results of excellent scholarship in a diverse array of topics related to business and applied sciences. Articles in this issue of the Journal focus on influence of sustainable development and competitiveness on place loyalty of residents from a Vietnamese context; multicultural diversity in the corporate public relations industry in Brazil; Volkswagen and the outcome of its moral hazard scandal; and business youth organizations and their role in the United Nations 17 SDGs.
The IJBAS continues to attract high quality scholarly works that are not only cross-disciplinary and offer important practical and theoretical implications, but add significant dimensions of international perspectives. This issue of the Journal features four scholarly papers and a book review.
The Impact of Sustainable Development and Competitiveness
on Loyalty: An Empirical Examination in Vietnam [pp. 8-20]
Attracting and retaining talented residents are paramount to the success of any district, city, or province in a country. This paper explores the impact of sustainable development and competitiveness on loyalty of residents. The authors interviewed 12 experts and surveyed 688 residents living in Binh Duong province, one of the most successful industrialized provinces in Vietnam. The results show that sustainable development and competitiveness have a positive impact on loyalty. In addition, differences in demographic characteristics such as gender, age, income are found to have an effect on the relationship between competitiveness, sustainable development and loyalty of the population.
Black Consciousness and Multicultural Diversity
in a Brazilian Public Relations Agency [pp. 21-34]
This study focused on whether and how the corporate public relations industry in Brazil is incorporating multicultural diversity, through in-depth interviews with Afro-Brazilian practitioners and White Brazilian senior executives in an agency. It is contextualized within Brazilian Black consciousness and governmental policy changes on affirmative action. While this study found evidence of discrimination, there was also evidence of the notion and practice of inclusion of all practitioners, regardless of race and ethnicity, which parallels the general practices of inclusion within the social class structure of Brazilian culture. The findings also indicate that agencies and their clients could benefit from hiring and promoting multicultural practitioners, because they bring with them cultural insight, through their cultural background, experiences, knowledge, identity, and opinions. The importance of recognizing and practicing multiculturalism is becoming increasingly important as markets and target audiences are becoming increasingly global.
Volkswagen - The Failure of Perfection and Moral Hazard:
What Price Victory? [pp. 35-48]
In the year 2015, it became publically known that Volkswagen employees created and deployed software designed to thwart emissions testing equipment, and in this paper, we use moral hazard theory to explain the causes of employees’ motivation. Volkswagen employees’ high internal locus of control and high elasticities of behavior to rewards were united with executives’ low expectations of disclosure and high expectation of rewards to create strong incentives to use deceitful emissions systems. Employees’ engaging in utilitarian, moral hazard based behaviors succeeded in increasing revenue for many years. Subsequent to disclosure of the deceit, Volkswagen’s short-term and longterm financial performance were negatively impacted. Volkswagen’s goal to be the largest automobile supplier in the United States was unattainable by ethical means, but employees’ nevertheless pursued that goal which ultimately led to a significant decrease in company performance as measured by stock price and market capitalization.
Youth Groups Needed to Achieve the United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [pp. 49-65]
The quest to achieve “sustainable development” has been a quixotic, long-term goal for all people. Sustainable development has been defined as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Could it ever be accomplished? Starting with the three main pillars of “sustainability”: 1) social, 2) environmental, and 3) economic, which are often referred to as “people, planet, and profits,” a strategy will be proposed here. Some achievements have been made, but there is no larger initiative to face the planet than achieving “sustainable development” in a globalized way. The largest untapped force to achieve the mega-goal is Youth. After discussing more formally the three parts of sustainable development, the UN’s 17 goals of sustainable development, a proposition will be proffered which focuses on the energy of youth to be harnessed to achieve the UN’s 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This article will present an overview of existing business youth organizations, their work towards the United Nations 17 SDGs, and proposes a concept for a new organization Business Youth for Sustainable Development (BY4SD). The establishment of BY4SD can accelerate the UN’s achievement of its 17 sustainable development goals.
Book Review: Flashes of Thought [pp. 66-69]
His Highness, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Flashes of Thought – Inspired by A Dialogue at the Government Summit 2013, Motivate Publishing, Media City, Dubai, UAE, pp. 144, 2013.
The United Arab Emirates’ rise to great eminence in the world in a short span since its founding in 1971 by the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras-al-Khaimah, Umm-al-Quwain, Fujairah, is a very fascinating part of the history of our times, with many a lesson. The UAE’s is a ‘miracle’, which appears to be similar, to the German and Japan Miracles of the post-second world war (1939-45), or even more. A key to understanding of the UAE phenomenon, representing a seeming Arab Renaissance, is provoked by the book under reference-such of which one rarely comes across, by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the eminent UAE Vice President, Prime Minister & Ruler of Dubai, the world-fame principality, as a wonder land.
Vol. 6 No. 2 , 2017
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 5]
The papers presented in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) cover such topics as factors affecting student satisfaction and profitability of a commercial bank, role of micro-financing coupled with educational and social programs in women empowerment, and impact of the economies of Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain (PIIGS) on German’s export juggernaut.
Student Satisfaction and Its Antecedents: How Does Student Satisfaction Index Model Matter in the Context of Joint Master’s Degree Programs in Vietnam [pp. 6-25]
Authors: Pi-Yun Chen, Long Pham, Brad Cousins, Cuong Bui
Vietnam is increasingly integrated into the world economy, and in the process, reaping impressive economic results. As a result of the rapid integration, the education sector has enjoyed significant growth, especially in the number of joint master’s degree programs offered by foreign universities in Vietnam. Despite this rapid integration and increase in joint degree programs, to date, very little research has been conducted to assess Vietnamese student satisfaction with joint master’s degree programs. To bridge this research gap, the aim of this study is to develop an integrated model to assess the factors affecting student satisfaction with joint master’s degree programs in Vietnam. Based on regression analyses, the results indicate six positive relationships: image and student satisfaction; image and student expectation; student expectation and perceived quality; perceived quality and perceived value; perceived value and student satisfaction. The results also indicate that perceived quality has the most important impact on perceived value; and perceived value has the most important impact on student satisfaction. The results of this study are consistent with that of Temizer and Turkyilmaz (2012), meaning that the SSI (student satisfaction index) model is reliable and valid under cross-cultural circumstances.
Determinants of Profit and Profitability of Rwanda Commercial Banks: A Profit Function Approach [pp. 26-41]
Authors: Ganesan Palanisamy, Anita S. Mane, Shaik Nagoor Meera, Madduluri Sarveswara Rao
The banking literatures on profits and profitability of the bank(s) have used macroeconomic and bank specific performance indicators to predict the profit and profitability of bank(s). Other literatures in the banking research also emphasized with cost efficiencies to determine the profit and profitability. The present study employs the profit function approach by disaggregating the factors into input, output, risk, macroeconomic factors and social factors and examined these factors’ effect on profit and profitability of a commercial bank in Rwanda. The relevant data related to the variables are taken from the annual reports of the selected commercial bank for the period between 2001 and 2015. The findings reveal that the employee cost is most significant factor affecting the profit as well as profitability of the selected commercial bank in Rwanda. Followed by interest and non-interest income also contributes to the profit and profitability along with deposit per branch and risk factor namely credit to total assets.
Micro-Finance and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries [pp. 42-52]
Author: Marilu Marcillo
The concept of micro-finance has been around since the 1800’s and has been more widely used as a tool to encourage entrepreneurship in developing economies as early as the 1970’s with the inception of the Grameen bank in Bangladesh. The success of micro-financing however, does have some shortfalls, especially in helping women who often face social, cultural, and educational challenges different from their male counterparts. These social structures often stand in the way for women limiting their ability to become financially independent and empowered. This paper will look at two programs, Ciudad Mujer (CM) from El Salvador and Farmers of the Future (FOF) from Niger Africa to show how micro-financing, coupled with educational/training programs and other comprehensive social programs can help women entrepreneurs thrive in developing economies to overcome the unique challenges that they face.
The Steroid of Forex Leverage-How the PIIGS Propel the German Export Juggernaut [pp. 53-61]
Authors: Ian Wise, Donald Crooks, Edward Strafaci, Cathyann Tully
The formation of the Eurozone and adoption of the Euro as a unifying currency has gone a long way in solidifying the economic prowess of the post-world war II continent. The single currency has cut transactions costs and added fluidity to all forms of intra zone trading. The thrust of this research will focus on the impact that Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain (PIIGS) had upon the export strength of the German economy. The Swiss Franc is considered a surrogate for the DM therefore the authors examine how the Swiss Franc reacted once the Swiss government elected to break its linkage to the Euro.
The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle
Class Survives [pp. 62-65]
By Lisa Servon
New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017
Banks regularly gouge customers with their absurdly high fees and overdraft charges, often motivating many consumers to forego the services of these institutions entirely. Check cashers, payday lenders, and credit alternatives have sprung up in the wake of the growing financial instability of many Americans, often making things worse. In this concise, engaging, and readable book, Servon investigates the institutional foibles of financial systems and the expanding income volatility of Americans. She goes undercover, first as a teller at RiteCheck, a check-cashing business in the South Bronx, and then at a payday lender in Oakland, California. She discovers how the mainstream bank-centered view of economic stability has become completely outdated, and explores the problems of financial insecurity spreading among the middle class.
Vol. 6 No. 1 , 2017
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 5]
The papers featured in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) focus on issues related to the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation, the reasons that contributed to the failure of Lehman Brothers, and the impact of over- and underrating of managerial competencies on leadership performance.
The purpose of the first paper entitled “Role of Knowledge Inequality and Social Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Transformation: Case of Rural South India” by Suresh Chandra Babu and C. Jayachandran was to explore the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation using the case study of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in South India. The study demonstrates that knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship are key factors contributing to productivity differences among farmers, specially when new technologies and techniques need to be adopted. The authors conclude that agricultural transformation policymakers should increase capacity for social entrepreneurship to bring about knowledge equality.
Role of Knowledge Inequality and Social Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Transformation: Case of Rural South India [pp. 6-19]Authors: Suresh Chandra Babu, C. Jayachandran
The importance of knowledge and social entrepreneurship in agriculture is well understood, but little is done to reduce this skill gap among smallholders. This paper studies the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation using the case study of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in South India. We show how adoption of innovation is strongly dependent on the level of knowledge inequality, which in turn is driven by the entrepreneurial capacity of farmers and the level of resource use in society. With primary data from households and through focus group discussions, our analysis shows that knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship are key factors contributing to productivity differences among farmers, especially when new technologies and techniques need to be adopted. We establish links between knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship and conclude that for agricultural transformation policymakers need to first increase capacity for social entrepreneurship and then focus on knowledge equality.
Embedding Values in Corporate Culture: Applying Schein’s Organizational Theory to Lehman Brothers [pp. 20-33]
Authors: Michele. W. Ganon, Jim Donegan, Guy Rotondo
Numerous questions were left unanswered when Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank, sought Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on September 15, 2008 and became the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history. This article examines two such questions: (1) How did its bellicose CEO, Richard Fuld, transmit his cultural values to Lehman staff; (2) did the accounting loophole, “Repo 105” or the firm’s aggressive, high risk culture play the greater role in the firm’s downfall. This paper draws on insights from Schein’s (2010) organizational culture framework to explore these questions. We suggest that the intentional misuse of “Repo 105” was not the main contributor to the collapse, which was instead, in the context of the financial crisis, an almost inevitable product of the aggressive, risk embracing culture that its CEO both embodied and built. The use of the Schein framework allows for an analysis that focuses on the systematic rather than idiosyncratic aspects of Lehman culture that contributed to the failure. By providing fresh insights into the Lehman implosion, this study may be useful to managers and other stakeholders seeking to identify and mitigate similar negative cultural attributes.
The Impact of Over- and Underrating on Leadership Performance [pp. 34-45]
Authors: Darrin S. Kass, Paul F. Rotenberry, Shiloh D. Erdley-Kass, Steven Welch
This study examined the notion of leadership over- and underrating: self-assessments of one’s managerial competencies relative to assessments made by others. Specifically, we examined the relationships between over- and underrating and performance on an assessment center. Our results showed that underraters were more likely to have higher performance scores than overraters. Multiple regression results indicated that as underrating increased scores on the objectively-rated competencies rose. These findings suggest that the mechanisms that underlie underrating and overrating – perhaps humility and narcissism, respectively - have important implications for personal and professional development.
Research on Measurement and Application of International Investment Competitiveness Indices [pp. 46-54]
Authors: Kun Ma, M. Ruhul Amin, Yinan Wang, Ben Mou
With the development of multinational business ties among nations, and establishment of closer bi-lateral cooperation among partner countries, international direct investment (or FDI) has begun to play a more significant role in the world economy. Moderate and large businesses serving as the drivers of the national economy of countries such as China, have been racing to achieve higher competitiveness by proactively establishing foreign branches via OFDI alongside aggressive promotion and marketing of products through international trade. In the context of OFDI, this study first of all, attempts to define international investment competitiveness index (IIC) in terms of a firm’s capability of making external investment decisions as well as operating and managing international projects (through foreign branches, and subsidiaries). The IIC puts special emphasis on the following factors: project investment and financing; technology, entrepreneurial management; and brand competitiveness relative to international trade competitiveness that primarily depends on the marketing mix. Second, this study initiates designing of illustration of three kinds of indices that may be used to measure IIC levels of the countries, sectors and firms respectively. These three indices are Investment Market Share (IMS), Investment Competitiveness (IC), and Revealed Investment Competitive Advantage index (RIC). These three indices should show international investment competitiveness from three separate perspectives: the market share, the country advantage, and the industry or sector advantage. Third, the study then applies the measurement of IIC to top ranking investing countries of the world with the available recent data. This paper reports the advantages and shortcomings of country specific FDI strategies using the results of comparative calculations and analyses. Finally, the paper explores further application of the indices in the investment management, investment project assessments, investment risk control and precautions, and investment policy making.
The Base of the Pyramid Promise: Building Businesses with Impact and Scale [pp. 55-56]
Stanford University Press (2016)
240 Pages, hardcover, $35.00
There has been increased interest in understanding the base of the pyramid (BoP) market over the past two decades. However, the BoP community of 4 billion people with the lowest levels of income around the world has been largely ignored by mainstream business scholars. Due to limited understanding of BOP markets, misconceptions and wrong assumptions are not uncommon. Over the years, Ted London and a few other scholars have made efforts to highlight business opportunities and viable business models for the BoP. This book is another instalment of Ted London’s careful analysis and prescription of business opportunities at the BoP.
London provides a background of the BoP and its opportunities. Three main themes are central to London’s approach. The first theme involves leveraging customizable tools, frameworks and strategies to enhance BoP enterprise development. The second theme is based on creating value by understanding the poverty alleviation opportunity. Throughout the book, poverty alleviation is conceived as a key deliverable and metric of evaluating effectiveness of the BoP enterprise. The third theme highlights a need to establish an ecosystem to sustain the BoP enterprise. London submits that the three themes are interconnected and mutually reinforcing.