- Vol. 7 No. 2, 2018
- Vol. 7 No. 1, 2018
- Vol. 6 No. 2, 2017
- Vol. 6 No. 1, 2017
- Vol. 5 No. 2, 2016
- Vol. 5 No. 1, 2016
- Vol. 4 No. 2, 2015
- Vol. 3 No. 2, 2014
- Vol. 3 No. 1, 2014
- Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013
- Vol. 2 No. 1, 2013
- Vol. 1 No. 1, 2012
Vol. 7 No. 2 , 2018
Table of Contents
Role of switching costs and perceived risk in managing customer loyalty in Vietnam e-commerce [pp. 1-14]
This research investigates the effects of switching costs and perceived risk on customer loyalty in Vietnam e-commerce context. The study also examines the mediating roles of switching costs and perceived risk in the relationships between important factors including communication, satisfaction and personalization and customer loyalty. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample of 437 Vietnamese online shoppers. AMOS 22 was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that perceived risk does not directly affect customer loyalty; instead, the effect of perceived risk on customer loyalty is totally mediated by switching costs. Moreover, switching costs and perceived risk significantly mediate the relationship between each of customer satisfaction, communication and personalization on customer loyalty. The findings give an insight into the roles of switching costs and perceived risk in managing customer loyalty as well as demonstrate new perspectives in explaining paths from customer satisfaction, communication and personalization to customer loyalty.
Developing software piracy free organization: A case of an American business school in China [pp. 15-37]
The habituation of legal software use for students on college campuses is important because it helps future professionals exercise the rules of ethical compliance. In this action research study, over a two-year period, we investigated the effects of planned change interventions (a.k.a. organizational development efforts) on legal software use at an American business school in China. We examined correlations among the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology constructs by using the partial least square structural equation modeling technique. After obtaining the evaluative surveys from undergraduate business students (n = 215), the results indicated that the adoption rate of legal software increased from 40% to 71%, and change interventions accelerated the speed of legal software use. While performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence had significant influences on behavioral intention, we found a substantial gender difference in the effect of facilitating condition on the legal software use behavior. Females are less likely to accept legal software that is mandated by the organizational policy, but they are highly influenced by the social influence. We also found out that participants accept legal software differently according to their respective year in the organization. Relatively new students are sensitive to the organizational policy whereas experienced students give more attention to the benefits of using legal software. Based on these findings, we suggest gender sensitive organizational policy and structured institutional efforts to build a software piracy free organization.
Corporate Tax Aggressiveness in the 2007–2008 Financial Crisis [pp. 38-48]
This paper examines the impact of the 2007-2008 financial crisis on corporate tax aggressiveness. I hypothesize that, during the crisis, firms adopt more aggressive tax policies to save cash internally as external capital is harder or more costly to obtain because of the tight financial markets. Consistent with the prediction, my findings show that firms exhibited higher levels of tax aggressiveness in the crisis period than in the non-crisis period. I further find that the impact of the crisis on corporate tax aggressiveness was stronger for firms with lower cash holdings (i.e., firms more susceptible to the credit supply shock). Overall, the results suggest that the credit crisis affects firms’ aggressive tax behaviors via its negative impact on their funding ability.
The Utilization of Scripts in Designing Charity Promotion Strategy:
The Case of Animals [pp. 49-65]
The purpose of this study is to explore the usefulness of scripts in the promotional materials of animal welfare charitable organizations. A content of the printed promotional material used, over a two-year period, by eighty-two animal welfare charitable organizations that is sent to current and potential donors through the mail was analyzed. The paper indicates how scripts can be of value in selecting promotion ingredients. The results can serve as a guide and a thinking stimulant for those who are designing animal welfare promotions. The utilization of scripts as a means of selecting points for animal charity programs appears to have considerable potential.
Together we grow: Communication and social capital in micro-credit for women’s empowerment in Bangladesh [pp. 58-67]
The empowerment of women is a fundamental component of global social economic development. Despite the importance of empowering women, women have long been subjugated around the world. Even though economically Bangladesh is in undeveloped Global South, the country has set a milestone through creation of a model to eradicate poverty by empowering women. In this study, we examined the effect of group dynamics in building social capital and how women could benefit by utilizing this social capital to get micro-credit. In turn, women are enabled to empower themselves and improve their lives. This is a qualitative study and data were collected based on in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results showed that group communication and social capital are important factors for micro-credit. Thus, Bangladeshi micro-credit borrowers get benefit from group bonding to get the loan and become socio-economically empowered. In this respect, this project will extend the existing knowledge of the role of communication in women’s empowerment in Bangladesh.
Book Review: Flashes of Thought [pp. 68-69]
In every aspect of business today, the landscape of finding an edge is critical. This same edge that empowers individuals in their personal lives can be showcased in their decision making abilities at work. The decisions employers and employees make every day have an impact on various facets of the organization. The same decision choices are applied to businesses and individuals alike. In this book, Exactly What To Say: The Magic Words for Influence and Impact, the author Phil Jones offers up advice and strategy, and emphasizes the power of words.
There are often many scenarios when individuals have either nothing to say or too much to say. In the world of business, this can be overly distracting or can cause confusion and lack of motivation. Jones provides the eloquence of business language for anyone who might find themselves in scenarios of leadership, teaching, or motivation. The science and art of influencing others stem from the ability to communicate well and “manipulate” words that have a profound impact with the audience being addressed. The significance of this book is that it delivers a simple call to action in how messages are delivered.
Vol. 7 No. 1 , 2018
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 6-7]
The papers presented in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) reflect the results of excellent scholarship in a diverse array of topics related to business and applied sciences. Articles in this issue of the Journal focus on influence of sustainable development and competitiveness on place loyalty of residents from a Vietnamese context; multicultural diversity in the corporate public relations industry in Brazil; Volkswagen and the outcome of its moral hazard scandal; and business youth organizations and their role in the United Nations 17 SDGs.
The IJBAS continues to attract high quality scholarly works that are not only cross-disciplinary and offer important practical and theoretical implications, but add significant dimensions of international perspectives. This issue of the Journal features four scholarly papers and a book review.
The Impact of Sustainable Development and Competitiveness
on Loyalty: An Empirical Examination in Vietnam [pp. 8-20]
Attracting and retaining talented residents are paramount to the success of any district, city, or province in a country. This paper explores the impact of sustainable development and competitiveness on loyalty of residents. The authors interviewed 12 experts and surveyed 688 residents living in Binh Duong province, one of the most successful industrialized provinces in Vietnam. The results show that sustainable development and competitiveness have a positive impact on loyalty. In addition, differences in demographic characteristics such as gender, age, income are found to have an effect on the relationship between competitiveness, sustainable development and loyalty of the population.
Black Consciousness and Multicultural Diversity
in a Brazilian Public Relations Agency [pp. 21-34]
This study focused on whether and how the corporate public relations industry in Brazil is incorporating multicultural diversity, through in-depth interviews with Afro-Brazilian practitioners and White Brazilian senior executives in an agency. It is contextualized within Brazilian Black consciousness and governmental policy changes on affirmative action. While this study found evidence of discrimination, there was also evidence of the notion and practice of inclusion of all practitioners, regardless of race and ethnicity, which parallels the general practices of inclusion within the social class structure of Brazilian culture. The findings also indicate that agencies and their clients could benefit from hiring and promoting multicultural practitioners, because they bring with them cultural insight, through their cultural background, experiences, knowledge, identity, and opinions. The importance of recognizing and practicing multiculturalism is becoming increasingly important as markets and target audiences are becoming increasingly global.
Volkswagen - The Failure of Perfection and Moral Hazard:
What Price Victory? [pp. 35-48]
In the year 2015, it became publically known that Volkswagen employees created and deployed software designed to thwart emissions testing equipment, and in this paper, we use moral hazard theory to explain the causes of employees’ motivation. Volkswagen employees’ high internal locus of control and high elasticities of behavior to rewards were united with executives’ low expectations of disclosure and high expectation of rewards to create strong incentives to use deceitful emissions systems. Employees’ engaging in utilitarian, moral hazard based behaviors succeeded in increasing revenue for many years. Subsequent to disclosure of the deceit, Volkswagen’s short-term and longterm financial performance were negatively impacted. Volkswagen’s goal to be the largest automobile supplier in the United States was unattainable by ethical means, but employees’ nevertheless pursued that goal which ultimately led to a significant decrease in company performance as measured by stock price and market capitalization.
Youth Groups Needed to Achieve the United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [pp. 49-65]
The quest to achieve “sustainable development” has been a quixotic, long-term goal for all people. Sustainable development has been defined as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Could it ever be accomplished? Starting with the three main pillars of “sustainability”: 1) social, 2) environmental, and 3) economic, which are often referred to as “people, planet, and profits,” a strategy will be proposed here. Some achievements have been made, but there is no larger initiative to face the planet than achieving “sustainable development” in a globalized way. The largest untapped force to achieve the mega-goal is Youth. After discussing more formally the three parts of sustainable development, the UN’s 17 goals of sustainable development, a proposition will be proffered which focuses on the energy of youth to be harnessed to achieve the UN’s 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This article will present an overview of existing business youth organizations, their work towards the United Nations 17 SDGs, and proposes a concept for a new organization Business Youth for Sustainable Development (BY4SD). The establishment of BY4SD can accelerate the UN’s achievement of its 17 sustainable development goals.
Book Review: Flashes of Thought [pp. 66-69]
His Highness, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Flashes of Thought – Inspired by A Dialogue at the Government Summit 2013, Motivate Publishing, Media City, Dubai, UAE, pp. 144, 2013.
The United Arab Emirates’ rise to great eminence in the world in a short span since its founding in 1971 by the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras-al-Khaimah, Umm-al-Quwain, Fujairah, is a very fascinating part of the history of our times, with many a lesson. The UAE’s is a ‘miracle’, which appears to be similar, to the German and Japan Miracles of the post-second world war (1939-45), or even more. A key to understanding of the UAE phenomenon, representing a seeming Arab Renaissance, is provoked by the book under reference-such of which one rarely comes across, by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the eminent UAE Vice President, Prime Minister & Ruler of Dubai, the world-fame principality, as a wonder land.
Vol. 6 No. 2 , 2017
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 5]
The papers presented in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) cover such topics as factors affecting student satisfaction and profitability of a commercial bank, role of micro-financing coupled with educational and social programs in women empowerment, and impact of the economies of Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain (PIIGS) on German’s export juggernaut.
Student Satisfaction and Its Antecedents: How Does Student Satisfaction Index Model Matter in the Context of Joint Master’s Degree Programs in Vietnam [pp. 6-25]
Authors: Pi-Yun Chen, Long Pham, Brad Cousins, Cuong Bui
Vietnam is increasingly integrated into the world economy, and in the process, reaping impressive economic results. As a result of the rapid integration, the education sector has enjoyed significant growth, especially in the number of joint master’s degree programs offered by foreign universities in Vietnam. Despite this rapid integration and increase in joint degree programs, to date, very little research has been conducted to assess Vietnamese student satisfaction with joint master’s degree programs. To bridge this research gap, the aim of this study is to develop an integrated model to assess the factors affecting student satisfaction with joint master’s degree programs in Vietnam. Based on regression analyses, the results indicate six positive relationships: image and student satisfaction; image and student expectation; student expectation and perceived quality; perceived quality and perceived value; perceived value and student satisfaction. The results also indicate that perceived quality has the most important impact on perceived value; and perceived value has the most important impact on student satisfaction. The results of this study are consistent with that of Temizer and Turkyilmaz (2012), meaning that the SSI (student satisfaction index) model is reliable and valid under cross-cultural circumstances.
Determinants of Profit and Profitability of Rwanda Commercial Banks: A Profit Function Approach [pp. 26-41]
Authors: Ganesan Palanisamy, Anita S. Mane, Shaik Nagoor Meera, Madduluri Sarveswara Rao
The banking literatures on profits and profitability of the bank(s) have used macroeconomic and bank specific performance indicators to predict the profit and profitability of bank(s). Other literatures in the banking research also emphasized with cost efficiencies to determine the profit and profitability. The present study employs the profit function approach by disaggregating the factors into input, output, risk, macroeconomic factors and social factors and examined these factors’ effect on profit and profitability of a commercial bank in Rwanda. The relevant data related to the variables are taken from the annual reports of the selected commercial bank for the period between 2001 and 2015. The findings reveal that the employee cost is most significant factor affecting the profit as well as profitability of the selected commercial bank in Rwanda. Followed by interest and non-interest income also contributes to the profit and profitability along with deposit per branch and risk factor namely credit to total assets.
Micro-Finance and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries [pp. 42-52]
Author: Marilu Marcillo
The concept of micro-finance has been around since the 1800’s and has been more widely used as a tool to encourage entrepreneurship in developing economies as early as the 1970’s with the inception of the Grameen bank in Bangladesh. The success of micro-financing however, does have some shortfalls, especially in helping women who often face social, cultural, and educational challenges different from their male counterparts. These social structures often stand in the way for women limiting their ability to become financially independent and empowered. This paper will look at two programs, Ciudad Mujer (CM) from El Salvador and Farmers of the Future (FOF) from Niger Africa to show how micro-financing, coupled with educational/training programs and other comprehensive social programs can help women entrepreneurs thrive in developing economies to overcome the unique challenges that they face.
The Steroid of Forex Leverage-How the PIIGS Propel the German Export Juggernaut [pp. 53-61]
Authors: Ian Wise, Donald Crooks, Edward Strafaci, Cathyann Tully
The formation of the Eurozone and adoption of the Euro as a unifying currency has gone a long way in solidifying the economic prowess of the post-world war II continent. The single currency has cut transactions costs and added fluidity to all forms of intra zone trading. The thrust of this research will focus on the impact that Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain (PIIGS) had upon the export strength of the German economy. The Swiss Franc is considered a surrogate for the DM therefore the authors examine how the Swiss Franc reacted once the Swiss government elected to break its linkage to the Euro.
The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle
Class Survives [pp. 62-65]
By Lisa Servon
New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017
Banks regularly gouge customers with their absurdly high fees and overdraft charges, often motivating many consumers to forego the services of these institutions entirely. Check cashers, payday lenders, and credit alternatives have sprung up in the wake of the growing financial instability of many Americans, often making things worse. In this concise, engaging, and readable book, Servon investigates the institutional foibles of financial systems and the expanding income volatility of Americans. She goes undercover, first as a teller at RiteCheck, a check-cashing business in the South Bronx, and then at a payday lender in Oakland, California. She discovers how the mainstream bank-centered view of economic stability has become completely outdated, and explores the problems of financial insecurity spreading among the middle class.
Vol. 6 No. 1 , 2017
Table of Contents
Editorial [pp. 5]
The papers featured in this issue of the International Journal of Business & Applied Sciences (IJBAS) focus on issues related to the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation, the reasons that contributed to the failure of Lehman Brothers, and the impact of over- and underrating of managerial competencies on leadership performance.
The purpose of the first paper entitled “Role of Knowledge Inequality and Social Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Transformation: Case of Rural South India” by Suresh Chandra Babu and C. Jayachandran was to explore the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation using the case study of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in South India. The study demonstrates that knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship are key factors contributing to productivity differences among farmers, specially when new technologies and techniques need to be adopted. The authors conclude that agricultural transformation policymakers should increase capacity for social entrepreneurship to bring about knowledge equality.
Role of Knowledge Inequality and Social Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Transformation: Case of Rural South India [pp. 6-19]Authors: Suresh Chandra Babu, C. Jayachandran
The importance of knowledge and social entrepreneurship in agriculture is well understood, but little is done to reduce this skill gap among smallholders. This paper studies the role of knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship in agricultural transformation using the case study of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in South India. We show how adoption of innovation is strongly dependent on the level of knowledge inequality, which in turn is driven by the entrepreneurial capacity of farmers and the level of resource use in society. With primary data from households and through focus group discussions, our analysis shows that knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship are key factors contributing to productivity differences among farmers, especially when new technologies and techniques need to be adopted. We establish links between knowledge inequality and social entrepreneurship and conclude that for agricultural transformation policymakers need to first increase capacity for social entrepreneurship and then focus on knowledge equality.
Embedding Values in Corporate Culture: Applying Schein’s Organizational Theory to Lehman Brothers [pp. 20-33]
Authors: Michele. W. Ganon, Jim Donegan, Guy Rotondo
Numerous questions were left unanswered when Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank, sought Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on September 15, 2008 and became the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history. This article examines two such questions: (1) How did its bellicose CEO, Richard Fuld, transmit his cultural values to Lehman staff; (2) did the accounting loophole, “Repo 105” or the firm’s aggressive, high risk culture play the greater role in the firm’s downfall. This paper draws on insights from Schein’s (2010) organizational culture framework to explore these questions. We suggest that the intentional misuse of “Repo 105” was not the main contributor to the collapse, which was instead, in the context of the financial crisis, an almost inevitable product of the aggressive, risk embracing culture that its CEO both embodied and built. The use of the Schein framework allows for an analysis that focuses on the systematic rather than idiosyncratic aspects of Lehman culture that contributed to the failure. By providing fresh insights into the Lehman implosion, this study may be useful to managers and other stakeholders seeking to identify and mitigate similar negative cultural attributes.
The Impact of Over- and Underrating on Leadership Performance [pp. 34-45]
Authors: Darrin S. Kass, Paul F. Rotenberry, Shiloh D. Erdley-Kass, Steven Welch
This study examined the notion of leadership over- and underrating: self-assessments of one’s managerial competencies relative to assessments made by others. Specifically, we examined the relationships between over- and underrating and performance on an assessment center. Our results showed that underraters were more likely to have higher performance scores than overraters. Multiple regression results indicated that as underrating increased scores on the objectively-rated competencies rose. These findings suggest that the mechanisms that underlie underrating and overrating – perhaps humility and narcissism, respectively - have important implications for personal and professional development.
Research on Measurement and Application of International Investment Competitiveness Indices [pp. 46-54]
Authors: Kun Ma, M. Ruhul Amin, Yinan Wang, Ben Mou
With the development of multinational business ties among nations, and establishment of closer bi-lateral cooperation among partner countries, international direct investment (or FDI) has begun to play a more significant role in the world economy. Moderate and large businesses serving as the drivers of the national economy of countries such as China, have been racing to achieve higher competitiveness by proactively establishing foreign branches via OFDI alongside aggressive promotion and marketing of products through international trade. In the context of OFDI, this study first of all, attempts to define international investment competitiveness index (IIC) in terms of a firm’s capability of making external investment decisions as well as operating and managing international projects (through foreign branches, and subsidiaries). The IIC puts special emphasis on the following factors: project investment and financing; technology, entrepreneurial management; and brand competitiveness relative to international trade competitiveness that primarily depends on the marketing mix. Second, this study initiates designing of illustration of three kinds of indices that may be used to measure IIC levels of the countries, sectors and firms respectively. These three indices are Investment Market Share (IMS), Investment Competitiveness (IC), and Revealed Investment Competitive Advantage index (RIC). These three indices should show international investment competitiveness from three separate perspectives: the market share, the country advantage, and the industry or sector advantage. Third, the study then applies the measurement of IIC to top ranking investing countries of the world with the available recent data. This paper reports the advantages and shortcomings of country specific FDI strategies using the results of comparative calculations and analyses. Finally, the paper explores further application of the indices in the investment management, investment project assessments, investment risk control and precautions, and investment policy making.
The Base of the Pyramid Promise: Building Businesses with Impact and Scale [pp. 55-56]
Stanford University Press (2016)
240 Pages, hardcover, $35.00
There has been increased interest in understanding the base of the pyramid (BoP) market over the past two decades. However, the BoP community of 4 billion people with the lowest levels of income around the world has been largely ignored by mainstream business scholars. Due to limited understanding of BOP markets, misconceptions and wrong assumptions are not uncommon. Over the years, Ted London and a few other scholars have made efforts to highlight business opportunities and viable business models for the BoP. This book is another instalment of Ted London’s careful analysis and prescription of business opportunities at the BoP.
London provides a background of the BoP and its opportunities. Three main themes are central to London’s approach. The first theme involves leveraging customizable tools, frameworks and strategies to enhance BoP enterprise development. The second theme is based on creating value by understanding the poverty alleviation opportunity. Throughout the book, poverty alleviation is conceived as a key deliverable and metric of evaluating effectiveness of the BoP enterprise. The third theme highlights a need to establish an ecosystem to sustain the BoP enterprise. London submits that the three themes are interconnected and mutually reinforcing.